Diabetes is a pathology associated with an increase in blood sugar caused by damaged blood vessels.
It most frequently affects the retina. Examination of the back of the eye can identify exudates and bleeding. Neovascular proliferation may be present in the more advanced stages of the disease. Morphological changes may also be present in the central area of the retina (the macula), with retinal exudation and an increase in retinal tissue volume.
The diabetic patient, therefore, should be frequently seen by a specialist who will examine the back of the eye in order to monitor the possible silent onset of the disease. In fact, the patient will only report a decrease in subjective vision at advanced stages of the disease.
The most useful diagnostic tests for diabetic retinopathy are Digital Retinopathy (RTN) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).