Hypertensive retinopathy

Systemic hypertension, or high blood pressure, can cause significant changes to the retinal vascular network and blood vessel caliber that can result in incidences of small flame-shaped bleeding at the optic nerve head. Patients with high blood pressure should therefore undergo frequent examination of the back of the eye and keep their blood pressure strictly monitored.

The most useful diagnostic tests for diabetic retinopathy are Computerized Visual Field (CVF) testing and Retinography.